Summary: 

For the purposes of monitoring the CRM Exchange Integration there is a status page that can be displayed in a web browser in html format that will provide information about the statistics of the synchronisation including timings and the number of items synced.

To access this url on the CRM server you can navigate to the following URL in a web browser:

http://<servername>/sdata/<installname>ExchangeSyncEngine/$service/status?html 

This will give you a web page with information like the screenshots below:

Exchange Integration Status Page